Nobel laureates in physics



Nobel prize in physics
The Nobel Prizes were created just in time to enable the awards to cover many of the outstanding contributions that opened new areas of physics in this period.
 
"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"
2014 Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura
"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"
"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"
"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
2000 Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
 "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
"for the discovery of the tau lepton"
"for the detection of the neutrino"
"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
"for the development of the ion trap technique"
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"
"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"
"for the invention of the bubble chamber"
"for their discovery of the antiproton"
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"
"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"
"for his discovery of the positron"
"for the discovery of the neutron"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"
"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
"for his discovery of the effect named after him"
"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"
"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"
"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"
"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"
"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"
"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"
"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"
"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"
"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"
"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"
"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"
"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
"for his work on cathode rays"
"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"
Nobel laureates in physics Nobel laureates in physics Reviewed by Unknown on 12:52 Rating: 5

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